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Marygold Walsh-Dilley,
Core: Humanities



In 1781, Tupac Katari was brutally executed by quartering, and his severed arms and legs sent by the Spanish to the four corners of the former Inca Empire as a warning to others. Katari had led a rebellion against the Spanish Viceroyalty in what is now Bolivia, laying siege to the city of La Paz that lasted 184 days before it was broken. Born Julián Apasa Nina, Tupac Katari took his name in honor of two previous rebels against Spanish rule, Tupac Amaru and Tupac Amaru II, some of the last descendants of the Inca “god-king” who had ruled over the Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest. Upon his death, Tupac Katari is reported to have said: “I die but will return tomorrow as thousand thousands.”


This class examines the legacy of Tupac Amaru, Tupac Amaru II, Tupac Katari, and the “thousand thousands” indigenous rebels and fighters that resisted Spanish colonization in the Andean region, and later marginalization and dispossession under the emergent nations of Bolivia and Peru. We begin by understanding the world of the early years of the Viceroyalty of Peru, reading directly from the first chronicles of the time, which describe the indigenous culture and population before and in the early years under the Spanish empire. We will then explore the emergence of resistance movements and rebellions throughout the region. From Tupac Amaru onward, Latin American history is filled with rebellious fighters, insurgent Indians, and dangerous pacts across ethnic lines. We will read about some of the most notorious of these, including the various Tupacs, Pablo Zarate Willca, and more recent rebels including Che Guevarra. This class traces the influence of these resistance fighters up to contemporary indigenous politics in the region, where the memory of Tupac Katari, his wife and rebel in her own right, Bertolina Sisa, and other indigenous insurgents remain strong. We will end by examining the broader global impact of Tupac Amaru and other Andean rebels, looking to the Black Panther movement in the United States, the music of hip-hop artist Tupac Shakur, and stories of rebellion from around the world. What can we learn by paying attention to these stories of rebellion? Who is a true rebel, why do they rebel, and how has rebellion contributed to the world we know?







Marygold Walsh-Dilley is Assistant Professor of Social and Behavioral Sciences in the Honors College at UNM. She holds a PhD in Development Sociology from Cornell University. Her research focuses on rural development, food and agricultural systems, and indigenous politics, primarily in the Andean region of Bolivia. She has extensive experience living, working, and conducting research in Bolivia, and has studied Quechua for 3 years.